Medicine Digest

This page will be arranged in the standard OPUSeJ Digest form:

EDITORIALS

FEATURE ARTICLES

DISCUSSION PAPAERS

FORUM ARTICLES

Appropriateness of patient’s use of ASA in CVD prevention. Kolber, M et al, 2013, “Family practice patients’ use of acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular disease prevention”, Canadian Family Physician 59:1, 55-61. http://www.opusej.org/library/family-practice-patients-use-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-cover/

A review of  the studies implicating different components of the immune system in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and implications for therapy. Haseeb, A, & T M Haqqi, 2012, “Immunopathogenesis of osteoarthritis”, Clinical immunology 146:3, 185-196. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2012.12.011. Epub ahead of print http://www.opusej.org/library/immunopathogenesis-of-osteoarthritis-cover/

A review suggests that among widely used NSAIDs, naproxen and low-dose ibuprofen are least likely to increase cardiovascular risk, while Diclofenac in doses available without prescription elevates risk casting doubt on its continued clinical use. McGettigan, Patricia and David Henry, 2011, “Cardiovascular Risk with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review of Population-Based Controlled Observational Studies”, PLoS Med 8(9): e1001098. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098 http://www.opusej.org/library/cardiovascular-risk-with-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-systematic-review-of-population-based-controlled-observational-studies-cover/

A longitudinal study of the duration of television viewing in youth associated with criminality and anti-social behavior in later adulthood. Lindsay A. Robertson, L A, Helena M. McAnally & Robert J. Hancox, 2013, “Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood”, Pediatrics 131:3, 439-446. Published online February 18, 2013. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1582. http://www.opusej.org/library/childhood-and-adolescent-television-viewing-and-antisocial-behavior-in-early-adulthood-cover/

A review of the importance of the interrelationship between gait and cognition in aging which presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunction and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. Montero‐Odasso, M et al, 2012, “Gait and cognition: a complementary approach to understanding brain function and the risk of falling”, J Am Geriatr Soc 60:2127–2136. http://www.opusej.org/gait-and-cognition-a-complementary-approach-to-understanding-brain-function-and-the-risk-of-falling-cover/

A qualitative case study involving five academic Radiology centres across Canada, in which the hidden curriculum of isolation or of collaboration and support are identified. A new, generative metaphor reasserts the role and function of scholarship in teaching and learning. Van Deven T, Hibbert K, Faden L, Chhem RK, 2013, “The hidden curriculum in radiology residency programs: A path to isolation or integration?”, Eur J Radiol. Epub ahead of print 2013 Jan 7. pii: S0720-048X(12)00602-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.12.001. http://www.opusej.org/library/the-hidden-curriculum-in-radiology-residency-programs-a-path-to-isolation-or-integration-cover/

A review of the relationship between pregnancy and bipolar disorder has implications for perinatal treatment and etiologic understanding of the disorder and underscores the urgent need for further research to estimate the prevalence of bipolar disorder during pregnancy. Sharma, V and Pope, C J, 2012, “Pregnancy and Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review”, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73:11, 1447-1455. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.11r07499. http://www.opusej.org/library/878-2/

A meta-analysis of atrial fibrillation incidence and of intermittent pre-excitation prevalence, in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Obeyesekere MN et al, 2012, “Incidence of atrial fibrillation and prevalence of intermittent pre-excitation in asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White patients: a meta-analysis”, Int J Cardiol 160:1, 75-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.05.078. Epub 2012 Jun 12. http://www.opusej.org/library/incidence-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-prevalence-of-intermittent-pre-excitation-in-asymptomatic-wolff-parkinson-white-patients-a-meta-analysis-cover/

How Long Does a Cough Last? Comparing Patients’ Expectations; With Data From a Systematic Review of the Literature Ebell, M H, Lundgren, J & Youngpairoj, S http://www.opusej.org/library/how-long-does-a-cough-last-comparing-patients-expectations-with-data-from-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-cover-page/.

Diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI is a promising technique for mapping changes in human lung morphology and may be useful for early detection of emphysema associated with COPD. Ouriadov, A et al, 2013, “Lung morphometry using hyperpolarized 129Xe apparent diffusion coefficient anisotropy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”, Magn Reson Med. Published online 28 JAN 2013, doi: 10.1002/mrm.24595 http://www.opusej.org/library/lung-morphometry-using-hyperpolarized-129xe-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-anisotropy-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-cover/

A proposed model that builds on existing theories of naturalistic decision making, from other high-stakes environments, and elaborates on a theoretic language that accounts for the unique aspects of surgery, making it useful for teaching in the operating room. Cristancho, S M et al, 2013, “When surgeons face intraoperative challenges: a naturalistic model of surgical decision making”, The American Journal of Surgery 205: 2, 156-162. http://www.opusej.org/library/when-surgeons-face-intraoperative-challenges-a-naturalistic-model-of-surgical-decision-making-cover/

In type B aortic dissections, branch vessel occlusion is more likely in the vessels supplied by the false lumen (FL). Aortic dilatation occurred more frequently when 2 or more vessels were supplied by the FL. Ravichandran, P et al, 2013, “Patterns of Visceral and Renal Artery Involvement in Type B Aortic Dissections”, Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 47:1, 5-8. Published online November 29, 2012, doi: 10.1177/1538574412467863. http://www.opusej.org/library/patterns-of-visceral-and-renal-artery-involvement-in-type-b-aortic-dissections-cover/

A review of studies suggests a promising role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity and atherosclerosis. Assini, Julia M, Erin Mulvihill & Murray W. Huff, 2013, “Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism”, Current Opinion in Lipidology 24:1, 34–40. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32835c07fd http://www.opusej.org/library/citrus-flavonoids-and-lipid-metabolism-cover/

A review of regulatory guidelines for end points and trial designs of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of inflammatory bowel disease therapy with recommended ways to improve these RCTs. D’Haen, G et al, 2012, “ Challenges to the Design, Execution, and Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials for Inflammatory Bowel Disease”, Gastroenterology 143:6,1461–1469. http://www.opusej.org/library/challenges-to-the-design-execution-and-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-cover/

SLE flare and infection remain the top factors affecting morbidity and mortality in a contemporary cohort of hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Lee, J, N Dhillon and J Pope, 2013, “All-cause hospitalizations in systemic lupus erythematosus from a large Canadian referral centre”, Rheumatology doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes391. published online: January 9, 2013. http://www.opusej.org/library/all-cause-hospitalizations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-from-a-large-canadian-referral-centre-cover/

Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) is a promising tool for the noninvasive detection of hepatic steatosis. Myers, R P et al, 2012, “Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP): a noninvasive method for the detection of hepatic steatosis based on transient elastography”, Liver International, 32: 902–910. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2012.02781.x http://www.opusej.org/library/controlled-attenuation-parameter-cap-a-noninvasive-method-for-the-detection-of-hepatic-steatosis-based-on-transient-elastography-cover/

Significant improvements in outcomes of 25% reduction or more for all 3 lipid outcomes are achieved with higher Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) thresholds than commonly targeted. Watanabe, Jonathan H., Mark Bounthavong, and Timothy Chen. “Revisiting the Medication Possession Ratio Threshold for Adherence in Lipid Management.” Current Medical Research & Opinion  (2013): 1-31. Posted online on January 15, 2013. (doi:10.1185/03007995.2013.766164) http://www.opusej.org/library/revisiting-the-medication-possession-ratio-threshold-for-adherence-in-lipid-management-cover/

READING LIST

No effect of vitamin-D supplementation in diabetes, cancer or cardiovascular disease. Autier, P et al, 2013, “Vitamin D status and ill health: a systematic review”, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2014, 2:1, 76 – 89. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70165-7 Published Online: 06 December2013. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(13)70165-7/abstract

Radioimmunotherapy in conjunction with antiretroviral triple therapy can effectively kill HIV-infected cells from patients, a new study has shown. Dadachova, E et al, 2012, “Pre-Clinical Evaluation of a 213 Bi-Labeled 2556 Antibody to HIV-1 gp41 Glycoprotein in HIV-1 Mouse Models as a Reagent for HIV Eradication”, PLOS ONE Published: March 09, 2012. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031866 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0031866

Study suggests new diagnostics based on the relative levels of the hormones, progesterone metabolites, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) and new approaches to prevention and treatment of breast cancers based on regulating the levels and action mechanisms of these anti- and pro-cancer progesterone metabolites. Wiebe, JP et al, 2013, “Progesterone metabolites regulate induction, growth and suppression of estrogen- and progesterone receptor-negative human breast cell tumors”, Breast Cancer Research 2013 15:R38. doi: 10.1186/bcr3422. http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/15/3/R38/abstract

Treatment with n−3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in primary prevention in high risk patients. The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group, 2013, “n–3 Fatty Acids in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors”, N Engl J Med 2013:368, 1800-1808. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1205409

Oral immunotherapy (OIT) and early allergen introduction are show promise as possible approaches to food allergy. Metcalfe J et al, 2013, “Randomized controlled trials investigating the role of allergen exposure in food allergy: where are we now?”, Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology 13: 3, 296-305. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e3283609671 http://journals.lww.com/co-allergy/Abstract/2013/06000/Randomized_controlled_trials_investigating_the.15.aspx

Introduction of cooked egg at 4 to 6 months of age might protect against egg allergy. Koplin JJ et al,2010, “Can early introduction of egg prevent egg allergy in infants? A population-based study” J Allergy Clin Immunol 126: 4, 807-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.028. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20920771

Restarting discontinued statins is a validated strategy. Zhang, H et al, 2013, “Discontinuation of Statins in Routine Care Settings: A Cohort Study”, Annals of Internal Medicine 158:7, 526-534. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1671715&atab=11

People at high risk for heart disease who have been treated in an ER for chest pains do better if they see a doctor within 30 days. Ko, D et al, 2013, “Association Between Physician Follow-Up and Outcomes of Care After Chest Pain Assessment in High-Risk Patients”,Circulation 127, 1386-1394. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000737. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/127/13/1386.full.pdf+html

The benefits greatly outweigh the modest risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome attributed to the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination. Salmon, D A et al, 2013, “Association between Guillain-Barré syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent inactivated vaccines in the USA: a meta-analysis”, The Lancet. Early Online Publication, 13 March 2013. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62189-8 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)62189-8/fulltext?_eventId=login

Treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) was effective in patients with diabetic retinopathy unresponsive to panretinal photocoagulation. Cintra LP et al, 2013, “Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for persistent new vessels in diabetic retinopathy (IBEPE study): 1-year results”, Retina Epub ahead of print 2013 Mar 15, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23508078

Appropriateness of patient’s use of ASA in CVD prevention. Kolber, M et al, 2013, “Family practice patients’ use of acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular disease prevention”, Canadian Family Physician 59:1, 55-61. http://www.opusej.org/library/family-practice-patients-use-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-cover/

Use of high potency statins is associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury.  Dormuth, C R et al, 2013, “Use of high potency statins and rates of admission for acute kidney injury: multicenter, retrospective observational analysis of administrative databases”, BMJ 346. Published  online 19 March 2013 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f880. http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f880

In A fibrillation, apixaban (Eliquis) was superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism, caused less bleeding, and resulted in lower mortality. Granger, C B et al, 2011, “Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation”, New England Journal of Medicine 365:11, 981-992. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1107039. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1107039

Magnetic stimulation of the brain compared well with pharmacotherapy for pain. Matsumura Y, Hirayama T & Yamamoto T, 2013, “Comparison Between Pharmacologic Evaluation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Analgesia in Poststroke Pain Patients”, Neuromodulation . e-pub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1111/ner.12019. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ner.12019/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false

Tadalafil (Cialis) most effective. Yuan J Q et al, 2013, “Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors for Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis” Eur Urol , 1-11.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.01.012

Higher fitness levels earlier in life may lower risk for dementia later in life. DeFina, L F et al, 2013, “The Association Between Midlife Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels and Later-Life Dementia: A Cohort Study”, Ann Intern Med 158:3, 162-168. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1567851

Five Major Psychiatric Disorders Share Common Genetic Risk Factors. Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 2013, “Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis”, The Lancet, Online Publication, 28 February 2013doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62129-1 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)62129-1/abstract

A review of  the studies implicating different components of the immune system in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and implications for therapy. Haseeb, A, & T M Haqqi, 2012, “Immunopathogenesis of osteoarthritis”, Clinical immunology 146:3, 185-196. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2012.12.011. Epub ahead of print http://www.opusej.org/library/immunopathogenesis-of-osteoarthritis-cover/

Subthalamic stimulation was superior to medical therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease and early motor complications. Schuepbach, W M M el al, EARLYSTIM Study Group, 2013, “Neurostimulation for Parkinson’s Disease with Early Motor Complications”, NEJM  368, 610-622. Online February 14, 2013.DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1205158 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1205158

Triple therapy using a 14-day high-dose proton pump inhibitor and long-acting clarithromycin provided an H pylori cure rate of 100% regardless of the CYP2C19 genotype. Prasertpetmanee, S, Mahachai, V & Vilaichone, R-K, 2013, “Improved Efficacy of Proton Pump Inhibitor – Amoxicillin – Clarithromycin Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Low Clarithromycin Resistance Areas or for Tailored Therapy”, Helicobacter Epub first online 2013-01-29. doi: 10.1111/hel.12041. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356886

Canagliflozin, a novel glucoretic, was generally well tolerated; most adverse events were mild and no hypoglycaemia was reported. Sha S et al, 2011,“Canagliflozin, a novel inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2, dose dependently reduces calculated renal threshold for glucose excretion and increases urinary glucose excretion in healthy subjects”, Diabetes Obes Metab 13:7, 669-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01406.x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21457428

Ineffectiveness of Cefixime (last oral antibiotic for N. gonorrhea).  Allen, V A et al, 2013, “Neisseria gonorrhoeae Treatment Failure and Susceptibility to Cefixime in Toronto, Canada”, JAMA 309:2, 163-170. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.176575. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1556149

A review suggests that among widely used NSAIDs, naproxen and low-dose ibuprofen are least likely to increase cardiovascular risk, while Diclofenac in doses available without prescription elevates risk casting doubt on its continued clinical use. McGettigan, Patricia and David Henry, 2011, “Cardiovascular Risk with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review of Population-Based Controlled Observational Studies”, PLoS Med 8(9): e1001098. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098 http://www.opusej.org/library/cardiovascular-risk-with-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-systematic-review-of-population-based-controlled-observational-studies-cover/

Study found that babies born by cesarean section or formula fed have a distinctly different makeup of bacteria inside their guts. Meghan B. Azad, M B et al, 2013, “Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months”, CMAJ published online February 11, 2013, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.121189 http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2013/02/11/cmaj.121189.full.pdf+html?sid=bfdc3163-03ca-4803-b414-6d3ecd80c35a

Use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception was associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder. Surén, P, et al, 2013, “Association Between Maternal Use of Folic Acid Supplements and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children”, JAMA 309:6, 570-577. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.155925. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1570279

A review of studies suggests a promising role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity and atherosclerosis. Assini, Julia M, Erin Mulvihill & Murray W. Huff, 2013, “Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism”, Current Opinion in Lipidology 24:1, 34–40. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32835c07fd http://www.opusej.org/library/citrus-flavonoids-and-lipid-metabolism-cover/

Smokers lose at least one decade of life expectancy, as compared with those who have never smoked. Cessation before the age of 40 years reduces the risk of death associated with continued smoking by about 90%. Jha, P et al, 2013, “21st-Century Hazards of Smoking and Benefits of Cessation in the United States”, N Engl J Med 2013; 368:341-350. Online January 24, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1211128. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1211128

This study indicated that mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) (Zenhale) improves pulmonary function and asthma control similar to fluticasone propionate/salmeterol  (FP/S)  with a superior onset of action compared with FP/S. Both drugs were safe, improved asthma control, and demonstrated similar results for other secondary study endpoints. Bernstein D I et al, 2011, “Efficacy and onset of action of mometasone furoate/formoterol and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination treatment in subjects with persistent asthma”, Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011; 7(1): 21. Published online 2011 December 7. doi:  10.1186/1710-1492-7-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3298511/

The infusion of donor feces was significantly more effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection than the use of vancomycin. van Nood, E, et al, 2013,”Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile”, NEJM Published online January 16, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1205037. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1205037.

Hypertension in normal weight and obese patients might be mediated by different mechanisms. Thiazide-based treatment gives less cardiovascular protection in normal weight than obese patients, but amlodipine-based therapy is equally effective across BMI subgroups and thus offers superior cardiovascular protection in non-obese hypertension. Weber, M A, et al, 2012,Effects of body size and hypertension treatments on cardiovascular event rates: subanalysis of the ACCOMPLISH randomised controlled trial”, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 6 December 2012. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61343-9. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)61343-9/abstract.

The Avoiding Cardiovascular Events through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial. The benazepril–amlodipine combination was superior to the benazepril–hydrochlorothiazide combination in reducing cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension who were at high risk for such events. Jamerson, K et al, 2008, “Benazepril plus Amlodipine or Hydrochlorothiazide for Hypertension in High-Risk Patients”, N Engl J Med 2008; 359:2417-2428. December 4, 2008DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0806182. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0806182.

Efforts to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use should target the discrepancy between patients’ expectations regarding the duration of acute cough illness (ACI) and the actual duration. Ebell, M H, Lundgren, J & Youngpairoj, S, 2013, “How Long Does a Cough Last? Comparing Patients’ Expectations; With Data From a Systematic Review of the Literature”, Ann Fam Med 11:1, 5-13. doi: 10.1370/afm.1430. http://www.annfammed.org/content/11/1/5.full.

Among drivers prescribed opioids, a significant relationship exists between drug dose and risk of road trauma. Gomes, T et al, 2013, Opioid Dose and Risk of Road Trauma in Canada: A Population-Based Study”, JAMA Intern Med. 2013, 1-6. doi:10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.733.http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1556791.

Topical alprostadil cream (Vitaros® for erectile dysfunction, ED, and Femprox® for female sexual arousal disorder, FSAD) significantly improves ED and FSAD. Most adverse events were generally well tolerated, limited to the application site and consistent with drug’s known effects. Padma-Nathan, H & Yeager J L, 2006, “An integrated analysis of alprostadil topical cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in 1732 patients”, Urology 68:2, 386-391. http://www.goldjournal.net/article/S0090-4295(06)00262-7/abstract. Costabile, R A, 2006, “Topical alprostadil for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder”, Womens Health 2:3, 331-40. doi: 10.2217/17455057.2.3.331.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19803905.

Complete documentation of key trial elements, as outlined in the SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper, together with the Statement, should help with the drafting of trial protocols and can facilitate transparency and protocol review for the benefit of all stakeholders. Chan, A W, et al, 2013, “SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials”, BMJ  346: e7586. Published online 2013 January 9. doi:  10.1136/bmj.e7586. http://www.opusej.org/library/spirit-2013-explanation-and-elaboration-guidance-for-protocols-of-clinical-trials-cover/

A review of regulatory guidelines for end points and trial designs of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of inflammatory bowel disease therapy with recommended ways to improve these RCTs. D’Haen, G et al, 2012, “ Challenges to the Design, Execution, and Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials for Inflammatory Bowel Disease”, Gastroenterology 143:6,1461-1469. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001650851201387X

Complaints about a reduced penile size were more common with radiotherapy (RT) plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or surgery than RT alone and were associated with greater interference with close emotional relationships and increased treatment regret. Parekh, A et al, 2013, “Reduced Penile Size and Treatment Regret in Men With Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Surgery, Radiotherapy Plus Androgen Deprivation, or Radiotherapy Alone”, Urology 81: 1, 130-135. http://www.goldjournal.net/article/S0090-4295(12)01152-1/abstract.

Cognitive deficits, correlated with white matter abnormalities and changes in regional cerebral blood flow and depression, appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy controls. Hart, J et al, 2013, “Neuroimaging of Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in Aging Retired National Football League Players”, JAMA Neurology 1-10. Published online January 7, 2013, doi:10.1001/2013.jamaneurol.340. http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1555584.

Fructose, a common sugar found in the U.S. diet, may cause changes in the brain that trigger a person to overeat. Consumption of fructose compared with glucose resulted in a distinct pattern of regional hypothalamic regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a smaller increase in systemic glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like polypeptide 1 levels. Page, K A et al, 2013, “Effects of Fructose vs Glucose on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Brain Regions Involved With Appetite and Reward Pathways”, JAMA 309:1, 63-70. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.116975. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1555133

Study shows that there is no one area in the brain that accounts for IQ, rather there are three completely different networks— verbal abilities, reasoning abilities and short-term memory abilities—involved in intelligence. Hampshire, A et al, 2012, “Fractionating Human Intelligence”, Neuron 76:6, 20, 1225-37. doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.022. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627312005843.

CBT as an adjunct to usual care that includes antidepressants is an effective treatment, reducing depressive symptoms, for patients whose depression has not responded to pharmacotherapy. Wiles, N et al, 2012, “Cognitive behavioural therapy as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for primary care based patients with treatment resistant depression: results of the CoBalT randomised controlled trial”, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 7 December 2012 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61552-9. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)61552-9/abstract.

The combination of statin treatment and increased fitness resulted in substantially lower mortality risk than either alone. Kokkinos, P F et al, 2012 “Interactive effects of fitness and statin treatment on mortality risk in veterans with dyslipidaemia: a cohort study”, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 28 November 2012 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61426-3. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)61426-3/abstract.

Retrospective study of minor hockey shows that odds of injury increased with decreasing age of exposure to bodychecking. Cusimano, M et al, 2011, “Effect of bodychecking on rate of injuries among minor hockey players”, Open Medicine 5:1, http://www.openmedicine.ca/article/view/246/391.

Treatment with potassium citrate for 24 months resulted in a significant increase in aBMD and volumetric BMD, while also improving bone microarchitecture. Jehle, S et al, 2012, “Effect of Potassium Citrate on Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Fracture Risk in Healthy Older Adults without Osteoporosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism  Published online before print November 15, 2012, doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-3099. http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/early/2012/11/14/jc.2012-3099.abstract.

Study of a large cohort of older patients with atrial fibrillation, reports rates of hemorrhage are highest within the first 30 days of warfarin therapy and are considerably higher than the rates of 1%–3% reported in randomized controlled trials of warfarin therapy. Gomes, T et al, 2012, “Rates of hemorrhage during warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation”, CMAJ published online November 26, 2012, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.121218. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2012/11/26/cmaj.121218.full.pdf+html

Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results data suggests that there is substantial over-diagnosis, accounting for nearly a third of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, and that screening mammography is having, at best, only a small effect on the rate of death from breast cancer.  Bleyer, A and  Welch, HG, 2012, “Effect of Three Decades of Screening Mammography on Breast-Cancer Incidence”, N Engl J Med  367. DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1206809. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1206809.

A common polymorphism near period homolog 1 (PER1) is associated with the timing of human behavioral rhythms, and shows evidence of association with time of death.  Lim ASP et al, 2012 “A common polymorphism near PER1 and the timing of human behavioral rhythms”,  Annals of Neurology 72, 324-34. DOI: 10.1002/ana.23636. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.23636/abstract.

Large cross-sectional study suggests that fasting for routine lipid levels is largely unnecessary. Sidhu, D and Naugler, C, 2012, “Fasting Time and Lipid Levels in a Community-Based Population” Arch Intern Med. online pre-print, 1-4. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3708. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1391022.

In a population of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease and a high risk of time-dependent aspirin resistance, aspirin divided twice per day can significantly decrease the rate of biological loss of efficacy at trough level. Dillinger, JG et al, 2012, “Biological efficacy of twice daily aspirin in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease”,  American Heart Journal 164:4, 600-606. http://www.ahjonline.com/article/S0002-8703(12)00439-5/abstract.

There were no significant differences in analgesic efficacy,  however, there were significant differences in secondary parameters between amitriptyline, duloxetine, and pregabalin. Boyle, J et al, 2012, “Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Comparison of Amitriptyline, Duloxetine, and Pregabalin in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain”, Diabetes Care online before print September 18, 2012, doi: 10.2337/dc12-0656. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2012/09/11/dc12-0656.short?rss=1.

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease who took memantine plus vitamin D for 6 months had a statistically and clinically relevant gain in cognition.  Annweiler,  C et al, 2012, “Effectiveness of the combination of memantine plus vitamin D on cognition in patients with Alzheimer disease: a pre-post pilot study”,  Cogn Behav Neurol 25:3, 121-7. doi: 10.1097/WNN.0b013e31826df647. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960436.

In a small (POSEIDON Trial) study of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, transendocardial injection of allogeneic or autologous mesenchymal stem cells, both favorably affected patient functional capacity, quality of life, and ventricular remodeling.  Hare, JM et al, 2012, “Comparison of Allogeneic vs Autologous Bone Marrow–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivered by Transendocardial Injection in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy”, JAMA preview online 1-11. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.25321. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1388970.

A large retrospective look at cancer patients found that statin use, before cancer diagnosis, is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Nielsen, S et al, 2012, “Statin Use and Reduced Cancer-Related Mortality” N Engl J Med 367, 1792-1802. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1201735. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1201735.

Low-serum GTA-446 level (as measured by COLOGIC) is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer, and a sensitive predictor of early-stage disease. Ritchie SA et al, 2012, “Low-serum GTA-446 anti-inflammatory fatty acid levels as a new risk factor for colon cancer”, International  Journal of Cancer Epub ahead of print 2012-6-14, doi: 10.1002/ijc.27673. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22696299.

Compared with the currently recommended strategy of continuing colonoscopy every 10 years after an initial negative examination, rescreening at age 60 years with annual highly sensitive guaiac fecal occult blood testing (HSFOBT), annual fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), or computed tomographic colonography (CTC)every 5 years provides approximately the same benefit in life-years with fewer complications at a lower cost.  Knudsen, A et al, 2012, “Rescreening of Persons With a Negative Colonoscopy Result: Results From a Microsimulation Model”,  Annals of Internal Medicine 157:9, 611-620. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1389847.

Ciprofloxacin for 7 days, as effective as 14 days in acute pyelonephritis in women, including older women and those with a more severe infection. Sandberg T et al, 2012,Ciprofloxacin for 7 days versus 14 days in women with acute pyelonephritis: a randomised, open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial”, Lancet 380:9840, 484-90. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-uncomplicated-cystitis-and-pyelonephritis-in-women/abstract/65.

Cranberry-containing products are associated with protective effect against UTIs.  Wang CH et al, 2012, “Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”, Arch Intern Med 172:13, 988-96. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1213845&utm_source=PositiveTips&utm_campaign=de7553027d-PositiveTips+Email+*%7CRSSFEED%3ADATE%7C*&utm_medium=email.

The risks and benefits of different antidepressants evaluated in the elderly.  Coupland, C et al, 2011, “Antidepressant use and risk of adverse outcomes in older people: population based cohort study”, BMJ, 343:d4551. doi:  10.1136/bmj.d4551 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3149102/.

A review of the relationship between pregnancy and bipolar disorder has implications for perinatal treatment and etiologic understanding of the disorder and underscores the urgent need for further research to estimate the prevalence of bipolar disorder during pregnancy. Sharma, V and Pope, C J, 2012, “Pregnancy and Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review”, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73:11, 1447-1455. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.11r07499. http://www.opusej.org/library/878-2/

Study findings establish Nodal, a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-associated protein which promotes breast cancer vascularisation, as a potential target for the treatment of breast cancer angiogenesis and progression. Quail, D F et al, 2012, “Embryonic Protein Nodal Promotes Breast Cancer Vascularization”, Cancer Research 72:15, 3851–63. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3951. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/15/3851.

(Cambia) formulation of diclofenac potassium for oral solution is effective in reducing pain intensity in migraine. Lipton, R B, et al, 2010, “Efficacy and tolerability of a new powdered formulation of diclofenac potassium for oral solution for the acute treatment of migraine: Results from the International Migraine Pain Assessment Clinical Trial (IMPACT)” Cephalalgia 30:11, 1336-1345 doi: 10.1177/0333102410367523 http://cep.sagepub.com/content/30/11/1336.short.

Colesevelam (Lodalis) may improve both lipid control and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral antihyperglycemic medications. Zieve, F et al, 2007, “Results of the glucose-lowering effect of WelChol study (GLOWS): A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the effect of colesevelam hydrochloride on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes”, Clinical Therapeutics 29:1, 74-83. http://www.clinicaltherapeutics.com/article/S0149-2918(07)00017-3/abstract.

BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate), as compared with placebo, significantly reduced the proportion of patients  with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis who had a relapse, the annualized relapse rate, the rate of disability progression, and the number of lesions on MRI. Gold, R, et al, DEFINE Study Investigators, 2012, “Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Study of Oral BG-12 for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis”, N Engl J Med 367, 1098-1107. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1114287.

High  pre-treatment levels of certain biomarkers (pro-inflammatory cytokines), are predictive of a lack of future response to antidepressants (‘predictors’), while the declining levels of other biomarkers  (belonging to glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function) that are targeted by antidepressants and change longitudinally during the treatment (‘targets’), are needed to observe a therapeutic antidepressant effect. Cattaneo, A, et al, 2012,“Candidate Genes Expression Profile Associated with Antidepressants Response in the GENDEP Study: Differentiating between Baseline ‘Predictors’ and Longitudinal ‘Targets’”, Neuropsychopharmacology advanced online publication.doi: 10.1038/npp.2012.191. http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/npp2012191a.html.

Study establishes the first empirical link between déjà vu in temporal lobe epilepsy and the processes of familiarity assessment.  Martin, C B, et al, 2012, “Déjà vu in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory”, Neuropsychologia 2012 Jul 27. (Epub ahead of print), doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.07.030, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028393212003260.

Study suggests a favorable short-term safety profile and beneficial BP effects of renal nerve ablation in patients with stage 3-4 CKD and resistant hypertension. Hering, D, et al, 2012, “Renal denervation in moderate to severe CKD”, JASN 23:7, 1250-7. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011111062.  http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/23/7/1250.short.

Cardiovascular and mortality benefits of statin therapy exceed the diabetes hazard, including in participants at high risk of developing diabetes. Ridker, P, et al, 2012, “Cardiovascular benefits and diabetes risks of statin therapy in primary prevention: an analysis from the JUPITER trial”, Lancet380:9841, 565-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883507?dopt=Abstract.

Prothrombin complex concentrate (eg. Octaplex) immediately and completely reverses the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban (Xarelto) in healthy subjects but has no influence on the anticoagulant action of dabigatran (Pradax) . Eerenberg, E, et al, 2011, “Reversal of Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran by Prothrombin Complex Concentrate”, Circulation 124:14, 1573-9 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.029017. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21900088.

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of vertebral fractures especially with myeloma and trauma. Anselmetti, GC, et al, 2012, “Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Multi-centric results from EVEREST experience in large cohort of patients”, Eur J Radiol. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902407.

Adolescent brain susceptible to permanent neurotoxic effect of persistent cannabis use.  Meier, M H, et al, 2012, “Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife”, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences PNAS Plus, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1206820109. http://infam.antville.org/static/infam/files/pnas.pdf.

Review of Erythrovirus (formerly parvovirus B19) in pregnancy. Lamont, R, et al, 2011, “Parvovirus B19 infection in human pregnancy”, BJOG 118, 175–186. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02749.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02749.x/full.

Lowest mortality was observed in AMI patients with potassium levels between 3.5-4.5 mEq/L of U-shaped distribution. Goyal, A, et al, 2012, “Serum Potassium Levels and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction”, JAMA 307:2, 157-164. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1967. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104847.

Spray-on skin cell treatments to heal venous leg ulcers. Kirsner,  RS, et al, 2012, “Spray-applied cell therapy with human allogeneic fibroblasts and keratinocytes for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers: a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial”, The Lancet doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60644-8Cite. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60644-8/abstract.

CT screening of high risk patients shows 20% mortality reduction. Aberle DR, et al, National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, 2011, “Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening”, NE JM 365:5, 395-409. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714641

Newly emergent variant of swine flu, influenza A (H3N2v) reported in US. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012-4-13,“Antibodies Cross-Reactive to Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus and Impact of 2010–11 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine on Cross-Reactive Antibodies — United States”, MMWR  6:14,237-241, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6114a1.htm.

Reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children. Ferrera G et al, 2012, “Booster vaccination of pre-school children with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A randomized, controlled trial in children primed according to a 2+1 schedule in infancy”, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 8:3, 355-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22327497.

Possible Reasons Why DTP, DTaP, and Adolescent- and Adult-Formulated Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Fail. Cherry, J D, 2012, “Why Do Pertussis Vaccines Fail?”, PEDIATRICS 129:5, 968-70. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2594. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/5/968.short.

A review of the 2010 pertussis upsurge in California. Marconi, GP et al, 2012, “An upsurge in pertussis: epidemiology and trends”, Pediatric Emergency Care 28:3, 215-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22344207.

Dapivirine intravaginal rings, IVRs, for AIDS prophylaxis, were safe and well tolerated in healthy HIV-negative women. Nel, A, 2009, “Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Dapivirine Delivery From Matrix and Reservoir Intravaginal Rings to HIV-Negative Women”,  Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 51:4, 416-423. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181acb536. http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2009/08010/Safety_and_Pharmacokinetics_of_Dapivirine_Delivery.7.aspx.

Aclidinium, (FDA approved Tudorza Pressair as a dry powder inhaler for the long-term maintenance of COPD) is effective and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Jones, P W et al, 2011,“Efficacy and safety of once-daily aclidinium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”, Respiratory Research12:55http://respiratory-research.com/content/12/1/55.

Alipogenetiparvovec (Glybera), for lipoprotein lipase deficiency, is first gene therapy drug approval in Europe.  Gaude, D, 2010, Atherosclerosis Supplements 11:1, 55-60. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567568810000085.

Body shape, as measured by ABSI (WC/BMI2/3x height1/2), appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality. Krakauer, NY and Krakauer, JC, 2012, “A New Body Shape Index Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index”, PLoS ONE 7:7 e39504 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039504. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0039504?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+plosone%2FPublicHealthandEpidemiology+(PLoS+ONE+Alerts%3A+Public+Health+and+Epidemiology).

Ranks 122 countries by data for physical activity levels and trends.  Hallal, P C et al, 2012, “Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects”, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1Cite. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2812%2960646-1/fulltext#sec1.

When added to standard care, IV montelukast was significantly more effective than placebo, in acute asthma. Adachi, M et al, 2012, “The efficacy and tolerability of intravenous montelukast in acute asthma exacerbations in Japanese patients”, J Asthma 49:6, 649-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742205.

Ezetimibe leads to paradoxical progression of atherosclerosis in association with both greater LDL-C reduction and cumulative drug exposure. Taylor, AJ, TC Villines and EJ Stanek, 2012, “Paradoxical progression of atherosclerosis related to low-density lipoprotein reduction and exposure to ezetimibe” European Heart Journal doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs1052012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564353.

Chronology of Alzheimer’s disease development from a long prospective study of a select but large group of patients. Bateman, R, et al, DIAN Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network, 2012, “Clinical and Biomarker Changes in Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Disease”, NEJM 2012 (10.1056/oa1202753) http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1202753.

FIELD Study : Current guidelines may be too restrictive re patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment versus  benefit from fenofibrate treatment.  Ting RD et al, 2012, Benefits and safety of long-term fenofibrate therapy in people with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment: the FIELD Study. Diabetes Care 35:2, 218-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22210576.

Mixed results for PrEP in HIV prevention, including FDA approved Truvada (TDF/emtricitabine). van der Straten et al, 2012, “Unraveling the divergent results of pre-exposure prophylaxis trials for HIV prevention”,   AIDS 24;26:7, 13-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22333749.

Fidaxomicin (approved in Canada as Dificid) for C. difficile. Venugopal, A A and Johnson, S, 2012, “Fidaxomicin: A Novel Macrocyclic Antibiotic Approved for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection”, Clinical Infectious Diseases 54:4, 568-574. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/4/568.short.

How hydroxychloroquine lowers cholesterol.Wallace DJ, 1990, “Cholesterol-lowering effect of hydroxychloroquine in patients with rheumatic disease: reversal of deleterious effects of steroids on lipids”, Am J Med 89:3, 322-6. http://www.ntkinstitute.org/news/content.nsf/NTKPaperFrameSet?OpenForm&id=6EA4D3E1725B66BC85257705006354C1&newsid=852571020057CCF685257A0F0020F6C4&u=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=22641182.

Genetic studies challenge the concept that raising of plasma HDL cholesterol will uniformly translate into reductions in risk of myocardial infarction. Voight B F, 2012, “Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study”, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 17 May 2012 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60312-2Cite http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60312-2/abstract.

Users of calcium supplements alone had twice the risk of MI compared to those on no supplements. Li, K et al (EPIC-Heidelberg group), 2012, “Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC-Heidelberg)” Heart 98, 920-925. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2011-301345. http://heart.bmj.com/content/98/12/920.full.

Review of genetic and hormonal factors regulating kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism suggests that this pathway mediates both genetic and environmental mechanisms of depression. Oxenkrug, G F, 2010, “Tryptophan–Kynurenine Metabolism as a Common Mediator of Genetic and Environmental Impacts in Major Depressive Disorder: The Serotonin Hypothesis Revisited 40 Years Later”, Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 47:1, 56–63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021918/?tool=pubmed.

Continuing alendronate for 10 years instead of stopping after 5 years reduces NVF (non-vertebral fracture) risk in women without prevalent vertebral fracture whose FN T-scores, achieved after 5 years of alendronate, are -2.5 or less but does not reduce risk of NVF in women whose T-scores are greater than -2. Schwartz, AV et al. FLEX Research Group, 2010,Efficacy of continued alendronate for fractures in women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture: the FLEX trial”, J Bone Miner Res. 25:5, 976-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20200926

Domperidone, especially in high doses, is associated with an increased risk of Sudden Cardiac Death. van Noord, Charlotte, et al, 2010, “Domperidone and Ventricular Arrhythmia or Sudden Cardiac Death: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in the Netherlands”, Drug Safety 33:11, 1003-1014.doi: 10.2165/11536840-00000000000000http://adisonline.com/drugsafety/Abstract/2010/33110/Domperidone_and_Ventricular_Arrhythmia_or_Sudden.5.aspx

Statin therapy benefits are now considered to stem from effects other than lipid modulation to pleiotropic effects. A review of the mechanisms and the pathways involved. Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar, et al, 2012, “Mechanisms Underlying Pleiotropic Effects of Statins”, Heart 98:1078-1082 doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2011-301306http://heart.bmj.com/content/early/2012/03/21/heartjnl-2011-301306.

Colchicine is safe and efficacious for the primary and secondary prevention ofpericarditis. Imazio M et al, 2012, “Efficacy and safety of colchicine for pericarditis prevention. Systematic review and meta-analysis”, Heart 98, 1078-1082 doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2011-301306 http://heart.bmj.com/content/98/14/1078.abstract.

Review Article. re: the efficacy and safety of drug therapies for obesity and gives perspective to the lorcaserin BLOSSOM study, 2011, Ioannides-Demos, Lisa L., Loretta Piccenna, and John J. McNeil, “Pharmacotherapies for Obesity: Past, Current, and Future”, Therapies Journal of Obesity doi:10.1155/2011/179674http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobes/2011/179674/. And see; Meredith C F, et al 2011, “A One-Year Randomized Trial of Lorcaserin for Weight Loss in Obese and Overweight Adults: The BLOSSOM Trial” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96:10, http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/96/10/3067.short.

PLATO studyTicagrelor (Brilinta) beats clopidogrel. Wallentin, L, 2009, “Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes”, N Engl J Med 361, 1045-1057. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0904327.

A new corticosteroid/ laba inhaler combo for asthma available in Canada as effective other combo. Blue color could be cause of confusion with salmeterol inh. Bernstein, D, 2011, “Efficacy and onset of action of mometasone furoate/formoterol and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination treatment in subjects with persistent asthma”, Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 7:21 doi:10.1186/1710-1492-7-21 http://www.aacijournal.com/content/7/1/21.

Dabigatran (Pradax) beats warfarin in A fibrillation. Connolly, S J et al, 2012, “Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, 361:12, 1139–1151. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0905561.

Review: predictors of opioid abuse and strategies to curb it. Sehgal, N, 2012, “Prescription Opioid Abuse in Chronic Pain: A Review of Opioid Abuse Predictors and Strategies to Curb Opioid Abuse”, Pain Physician 2012; 15:ES67-ES92. http://www.painphysicianjournal.com/2012/july/2012;15;ES67-ES92.pdf.

Review: Hypereosinophilia. Roufosse, F and Weller, P F, 2010, “Practical approach to the patient with hypereosinophilia”, J Allergy Clin Immunol.126:1, 39–44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2902584/.

Implicates most current published research findings as false and discusses problems for the conduct and interpretation of research. Ioannidis JPA, 2005, “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False” PLoS Med 2:8, e124. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124.

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